It's hard not to go into full throttle panic mode when something is wrong with your fur child. Trust us, we get it. Having your dog diagnosed with any disease can be extremely heart wrenching for a pet parent. With that being said, if your pup was recently diagnosed with Addison's disease, try to remain calm. While there certainly is an adjustment period, the disease is entirely manageable.
In this article, we hope to inform our readers of the disease as well as symptoms to look out for and the ways to manage it. Take a deep breath, you got this!
The Basics of Addison's Disease
You may also hear Addison’s disease referred to as canine Hypoadrenocorticism. While it is fairly uncommon, when Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs does develop is it typically seen in young to middle-aged female canines (with an average age of four years old). With that being said, it is entirely possible for Addison's disease to develop at any age and affect both male and female dogs.
Furthermore, while the disease is relatively uncommon, it is still important to know the signs and potential causes for its development. While it is completely manageable with the appropriate treatment plan and medication, if left untreated, Addison's disease can be fatal. Therefore, if you suspect that your dog may have the disease, a timely diagnosis is absolutely imperative.
What is Addison's Disease in Dogs
Addison's disease develops as a result of damage to the dog's adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are much more important than many people may realize. The glands are responsible for producing hormones that keep essential hormones in balance. Cortisol and aldosterone are among two of the most important hormones that the glands produce.
What is Cortisol
Cortisol is the hormone that manages sugar, fat, and protein metabolism. Cortisol is also responsible for the dog’s response to stress.
What is Aldosterone
Aldosterone is the hormone responsible for balancing the salt and potassium in the dog’s body. Additionally, aldosterone plays a large role balancing salt and potassium levels in situations where the dog's body is under stress.
As you can imagine, when these hormones are functioning properly or aren't balanced, a slew of issues can quickly arise. These problems are all directly linked to what is referred to as Addison's disease.
What is Cushing's Disease
The condition that is considered to be the opposite of Addison's disease is called Cushing’s disease. Cushing's disease is an overproduction of cortisol in the dog's body.
Potential Causes of Addison's Disease
Despite substantial research, not all causes of Addison's disease are known. Most commonly, the underlying cause is genetically based. In many of these cases, an autoimmune disorder causes the body to wrongfully see its own organs as a threat and attack them (this is also known as immune-mediated destruction).
Experts believe that other cases of Addison's disease are the result of different disease side-effects. For instance, different conditions such as infections of the adrenal glands like histoplasmosis or blastomycosis have been directly linked to the Addison's disease in dogs.
Other instances of Addison's disease are believed to occur from a problem in the dog’s pituitary gland. The issue results in the gland not producing the hormone ACTH which plays an important role in the production of cortisol in the body.
Types of Addison's Disease
Of the varying types of Addison's disease, primary, secondary, and treatment-induced are the three that pet owners should be aware of.
Primary Addison's Disease
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency is the most common type of Addison's disease in dogs. This type of Addison's disease occurs when the adrenal glands as a whole stop working.
Secondary Addison's Disease
Secondary hypoadrenocorticism affects the pituitary glands (as opposed to the adrenal gland). The pituitary gland produces ACTH. ACTH is an important hormone that is responsible for sending signals to the adrenal glands. These signals alert the adrenal glands to make their own specific hormone.
If the pituitary gland stops producing ACTH, the adrenal glands, therefore, stop producing cortisol.
If Fido is diagnosed with Secondary Addison's disease, the treatment plan will involve medication that helps the produce the cortisol that it is not naturally making. This type of Addison's disease isn't accompanied by symptoms of an Addisonian crisis (symptoms of a bad salt/potassium balance... more on that in a minute).
Treatment-Induced Addison’s Disease
Finally, the third type of Addison's disease is referred to as treatment-induced Addison's disease or iatrogenic Addison’s disease. It is the type of the disease that is a result of prescription drugs.
Luckily, there are ways to prevent this form of Addison's disease from developing, but the trick is knowing the risks involved.
Iatrogenic Addison’s disease typically develops when a dog is taking a steroid medication for a long period of time and then comes off the medication too quickly. This is due to the fact that when dogs are taking steroids, their hormones levels increase and the adrenal glands stop producing.
For this reason (among others), it is so incredibly important to always discuss the proper way to use medications with your veterinarian and always follow the instructions accurately. Pet owners may believe that their beloved four-legged friend no longer needs to be on the steroid medication because they are feeling better. However, may dog parents do not realize that abruptly ending medication can quickly (and fairly easily) lead to a slew of additional problems to arise.
Furthermore, stopping steroidal use without slowly weaning the dog off of the medication can lead to issues that are irreversible. It is entirely possible for the adrenal glands to not be able to start up again. Again, consult with your vet and develop a proper, monitored treatment plan for your dog's individual needs.
Addison's Disease Symptoms
The following are symptoms of Addison's disease and can range from mild to severe. It is incredibly important for pet parents to not ignore mild symptoms as they can quickly worsen and prove to be much more difficult to manage in many cases. Additionally, Addison's disease symptoms may appear suddenly and be severe or may appear intermittently and vary in severity with each occurrence.
From painful stomach cramping to diarrhea and vomiting to loss of appetite and weight loss, gastrointestinal issues are a common sign of Addison's disease.
Of course, general stomach issues are what is referred to as non-specific symptoms. In other words, they are symptoms of many different conditions. For instance, dog diarrhea is a symptom of Addison's disease but is also a sign that Fido may have gone through the trash while you were at work. The same goes for a non-specific symptom such as a loss of appetite. That's why it's so important knowing your dog's "normal" behavior in order to recognize when something is off and be able to act accordingly.
An increased amount of muscular weakness and overall tiredness are a telltale sign of Addison's disease. Many pet parents may not know that increased lethargy is directly tied to dehydration and hormone imbalance. Another telling symptom of Addison’s disease in dogs is increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria). If Fido has any of the aforementioned symptoms, a timely diagnosis is imperative in order to begin treatment and ensure the condition doesn't worsen.
Additional Symptoms of Addison's Disease
Symptoms of Addison's disease include:
- Poor appetite
- Weight loss
- Excessive thirst
- Cool to touch
- Excessive shaking
- Slow heart rate
- Change in blood pressure
Addison's Disease & Stress
When a dog is stressed their adrenal glands naturally produce higher levels of cortisol. This helps them deal with the stress. A dog with Addison's disease is unable to make enough cortisol and therefore is unable to properly deal with whatever stress they are currently facing. Therefore, the symptoms of Addison's disease will often be much more severe when the dog is stressed.
We likely don't have to tell you that dogs are highly sensitive creatures. What stresses one dog may not stress the next, but you can assume that if something is bothering you, your dog is picking up on it. Additionally, any changes in your dog's day to day routine, traveling, having guests over, etc. can cause them to experience an amount of stress that will cause the symptom's of Addison's disease to worsen.
This brings us back to the beginning of this article when we encouraged our readers not to panic. We know this is easier said than done, but a dog with Addison's disease should avoid stress at all costs and if something is stressing you out, you can be sure it's stressing Fido out.
Unfortunately, because of the fact that early symptoms are typically mild, many dogs aren't diagnosed with Addison's disease until they experience an Addisonian crisis. An Addisonian crisis is a medical emergency that results in your dog going into shock from a sodium and potassium imbalance and the collapse of their circulation system. We hope it goes without saying that if you think your dog may be experiencing an Addisonian crisis, immediate medical invention is paramount.
Oftentimes, a dog experiencing an Addisonian crisis will appear to be extremely ill. Typical symptoms include:
- Extremely dehydrated
- Physically weak
- Excessive shivering
- Heart failure (Relatively uncommon but possible)
Addison's Disease Diagnosis
You may hear your vet refer to Addison's disease as “the great imitator.” This goes back to the non-specific symptoms that we discussed. Due to the fact that the symptoms of Addison's disease are also those of a slew of other conditions, your veterinarian will likely have to run a series of tests on your dog in order to accurately diagnose the disorder. When other diagnoses are ruled out, the veterinarian will confirm an adrenal insufficiency and thus an Addison's disease diagnosis by using an ACTH stimulation test.
Additional tests typically include standard blood tests such as a complete blood count and a chemistry profile as well as tests to check for other imbalances such as:
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
- Elevated creatinine
- Decreased blood sugar
Additionally, an electrolyte test will likely be administered to check for dehydration.
If all the results are pointing to Addison's disease, then the vet will perform an ACTH challenge test in order to make the final diagnosis.
ACTH Challenge Test
An ACTH challenge test involves injecting the dog with (you guessed it) ACTH. A dog that does not have Addison's disease will respond by showing increased cortisol levels. The vet will know for sure that it's Addison's disease if there is not an increase in the dog's cortisol levels after being injected with ACTH.
Preventing Addison's Disease
As we previously mentioned, some cases of Addison's disease are caused by genetics. In these cases, unfortunately, there is no real way to prevent the disease from developing. However, in other cases of Addison's disease in dogs, there are a few ways that pet owners can make sure they are protecting their pup's adrenal gland and ultimately prevent the disease.
Avoid Drugs and Chemicals
Consuming dangerous drugs and chemicals is a prominent way that Addison's disease may develop. Keeping these substances out of reach is an easy way to prevent Fido from accidentally eating them.
It goes without saying that consuming any drugs or chemicals may not result in Addison's disease, but will likely result in a serious issue developing either immediately or in the future. If you believe your dog may have eaten something dangerous, it is extremely important to have them checked by a vet right way.
Protect the Kidneys
Avoiding any pressure or impact on the sensitive area surrounding the kidneys is also an important way to prevent Addison's disease from developing.
As we previously mentioned, one of the most common known reasons behind Addison's disease is discontinuing steroid use too quickly. We understand that there are times when steroids may be necessary to get your beloved four-legged friend back on the right track. It is impossibly hard seeing your pet in pain so it makes sense that owners may think that as soon as the medication works, they should stop giving it (especially if you're aware of the dangers of so many conventional drugs). However, this truly can harm your dog more than you can imagine. It is imperative to always follow your veterinarian's instructions when starting and ending medications, particularly steroids. It can make a world of difference in your dog's health and wellbeing.
Protect the Adrenal Glands
It's pretty safe to assume that anything that causes harm to the adrenal glands has the potential to cause Addison's disease. Therefore, by protecting the adrenal glands you are helping to prevent the disease from developing.
Treatment for Addison's Disease
We know that that was a fair amount of potentially troubling information. However, we originally said not to panic for a reason and the reason is that when diagnosed appropriately and in a timely manner, Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs is entirely treatable.
The long-term treatment of Addison’s in dogs involves replacing the essential hormones that the dog's body is no longer producing naturally. This is achieved with drugs such as Florinef (fludrocortisone), or a newer treatment option, Percorten-V (desoxycorticosterone pivalate | DOCP).
Percorten-V (DOCP) is a long-acting medication and only has to be administered once every twenty-five day period. It’s been shown to offer much better results than Florinef. However, with that in mind, if your dog is prescribed Percorten-V (DOCP), they will typically also be prescribed a steroid called Prednisone. Prednisone will have to be given daily.
Once your dog's hormone levels are stabilized, it is important for them to be rechecked by a vet 2-3 times a year so that the dose of medication can be altered if necessary.
Treatment for an Addisonian Crisis
If your dog is in an Addisonian crisis your veterinarian will likely administer intravenous fluids like dexamethasone, and potentially glucose (sugar) to help stabilize your dog.
Managing Addison’s Disease in Dogs
Here's the good news. With proper treatment and an understanding of how to manage the disease, Addison's disease in dogs has a good prognosis. With the appropriate care, the majority of Addison's dogs won’t have any disease-related problems that could lead to their lifespan being shortened.
As a pet owner, the most difficult aspect of managing Addison's disease is making sure that you are staying on top of necessary medications and always being on the lookout of signs of an Addisonian crisis. In the beginning, it is important for your dog's blood to be tested weekly. However, once stabilized, you'll only need to have their blood checked 2-4 times a year.
Again, we cannot stress enough the importance of knowing your dog's "normal" behavior. We wish that our dogs could talk to us and tell us exactly how they are feeling. However, this just isn't the case. Dogs are notorious for hiding pain and playing it cool. Therefore, if anything seems off, chances are, something is very off. It is imperative to be able to quickly recognize these changes and act accordingly.
Breeds at Risk of Addison's Disease
While any dog, at any age, any breed, and either sex can develop Addison's disease, studies have found that certain breeds seem to be at higher risk.
These breeds include:
- Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
- Portuguese Water Dogs
- Standard Poodles
- Airedale Terrier
- Basset Hound
- Bearded Collies
- Great Dane
- Springer Spaniels: English Springer Spaniel and Welsh Springer Spaniel
- Saint Bernard
- Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
- West Highland White Terrier
If your pup happens to be one of the aforementioned breeds, it's even more important to be on high alert when it comes to recognizing symptoms of canine Addison's disease.
Addison's Disease in Dog's: The Bottom Line
At the end of the day, we know that your dog means the entire world to you. Trust us, we get it. At Honest Paws, we are all dog owners. That's why we know first hand just how difficult it can be when your four-legged family member is diagnosed with a lifelong disease.
We are here to tell you that thanks to modern medicine, Addisons disease in dogs is very manageable and no longer a death sentence. Furthermore, an Addisons disease dog can live just as long as a dog that doesn't have the condition.
By knowing the ways that you can help protect the adrenal gland, the signs of the disease, and what to do if symptoms occur, you can ensure that you are doing everything you can to keep Fido happy and healthy. Again, Addison's disease is manageable, but the first step in doing so is through an accurate diagnosis. If for any reason you believe that your dog may have Addison's disease, don't delay on contacting your veterinarian.
Fabiana is a caring pet owner who also works as the Lead Editor of CertaPet. She enjoys helping other pet parents get all the furry-friend-related-info they need, as well as spending time with her precious pooch.